WHAT IS RESEARCH
When we hear the “Research” word the first question comes to on our mind that is What Is Research? So basically research means ‘RE + SEARCH’ re means again and again and search refer to explore something new so in a short word research is process of observing the phenomenon again and again.
Research is a systematic effort to gain new knowledge in any kind of discipline, or it is a systematic process where scientific activity done for solution of problem or extension of knowledge.
TYPES OF RESEARCH
The basic type of research are as follow-
On the basis of objectives-
· Action research
· Applied research
On the basis of Nature of data-
· Qualitative Research
· Quantitative Research
On the basis of Nature of findings-
· Explanatory Research
· Exploratory Research
· Descriptive Research
On the basis of experimental manipulations-
· Experimental Research
· Non-Experimental Research
On the basis of approach involved-
· Longitudinal Research
· Cross Sectional Research
CONCEPT OF LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH
Longitudinal research also known as a longitudinal study, , or panel study. This studies often use surveys to collect data that is either qualitative or quantitative Intend the survey creator distributes questionnaires over time to observe changes in participant, behaviours or attitudes. Many medical studies are longitudinal researchers note and collect data from the same subjects over that can be many years.
A longitudinal research also an observational, researches conduct several observations of same subjects over a period of time sometimes lasting many years.
The benefit of a longitudinal study is that researchers are able to detect developments of changes in the characteristics of the target population at both the group and the individual level. The key here is that longitudinal studies extend beyond a single moment in time. As a result, they can establish sequences of events.
Example: Piaget’s cognitive development
TYPE OF LONGITUDINAL STUDIES:
Retrospective (looking back in time, thus using existing data.)
• Cohort Analysis > Prospective
• Panel study > Prospective
• Retrospective study > Retrospective
• Time-series designs > Prospective
A cohort is any group of individuals who are inked in some way or who have experienced the same significant
life event within a given period.
Panel studies measure the same sample of respondents at different points in time.
Time series designs that involve single subjects, and it is useful when the researcher intends to measure the effects of a treatment over a long period of time.
Characteristics of longitudinal research:
· They are observational studies in nature.
· Co relational, trend and cause and effect relationship may be described by this.
· Longitudinal research is often contrasted with cross-sectional research and involves collecting data over an extended period, often years or even decades whereas cross-sectional research involves collecting data at a single point in time.
· The identifying feature of longitudinal research is studyingone group of individuals over time.
· Respondents remains same during the research.
LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH USE FOR-
Ø Attitude and image checks
Ø The impact of disease and treatment method
Ø Theory developed
Ø Market tracking
Ø Product launches
LONGITUDINAL STUDIES ADVANTAGES
· lots of data
· More trustworthy because it is the same participants
· Time consuming
· People drop out of the study etc
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